By Alfred North Whitehead

Symbolic Reasoning allied to bland A lgebra. the manager examples of such structures are Hamilton sQ uaternions, Grassmann sC alculus of Extension and Boole sS ymbolic good judgment. Such algebras have an intrinsic worth for separate certain research; they are also important of a comparative examine, for the sake of the sunshine thereby thrown at the normal conception of symbolic reasoning, and on algebraic symbolism specifically. The comparative research inevitably presupposes a few earlier separate learn, comparability being very unlikely with no wisdom. consequently after the overall ideas of the total topic were mentioned in booklet I. of this quantity, the remainder books of the amount are dedicated to the separate learn of the Algebra of Symbolic common sense, and of Grassmann sC alculus of Extension, and of the guidelines fascinated by them. the assumption of a generalized perception of house has been made in demand, within the trust that the homes and operations interested by it may be made to shape a uniform approach to interpretation of a few of the algebras. hence it really is was hoping during this paintings to express the algebras either as platforms of symbolism, and likewise as engines for the research of the probabilities of suggestion and reasoning hooked up with the summary common notion of house. A typical mode of comparison.between the algebras is therefore without delay supplied by way of the solidarity of the subject-matters in their interpretation. The targeted comparability in their symbolic buildings has been adjourned to the second one quantity, during which it truly is meant to accommodate Quaternions, Matrices, and the final idea of Linear A lgebras. This comparative anatomy of the topic used to be originated by way of B. Peirce spaper on Linear Associative A lgebra, and has been carried ahead by way of more moderen investigations in Germany. Firat learn prior to theN ational Academy of Soienoes in Washington, 1871, and repabliahed within the American magazine of M

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Natural or counting numbers: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ... ❑ Whole numbers: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ... ❑ Odd numbers: Whole numbers not divisible by 2: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, ... ❑ Even numbers: Whole numbers divisible by 2: 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, ... ❑ Integers: ... -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ... ❑ Negative integers: ... -5, -4, -3, -2, -1 7 3 9 ❑ Rational numbers: All fractions, such as: - 5 6 , - 3, 4 , 8 . Every integer is a rational number (for example, the integer 2 can be written as 2 ). All rational numbers can be written in the general 1 a form b , where a can be any integer and b can be any natural number.

0, 5 2. 2, 10 (Collections of Numbers, p. 27) 3. False. (Ways to Show Multiplication and Division, p. 27) 4. Is greater than. 5. True. 6. -2 7. 3 8. 1 9. True. (Collections of Numbers, p. 27) (Symbols and Terminology, p. 28) (Symbols and Terminology, p. 28) (Some Properties [Axioms] of Addition, p. 29) (Some Properties [Axioms] of Addition, p. 29) 4 (Some Properties [Axioms] of Multiplication, p. 30) (Some Properties [Axioms] of Multiplication, p. 30) 10. True. Multiplication distributes over addition.

Qxd 5/20/03 9:19 AM Page 41 41 Chapter 2: Whole Numbers Computation Some people find addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers to be difficult, but if you learn them step-by-step and practice, you’ll discover that they aren’t so hard after all. Adding and Subtracting To add or subtract whole numbers, line up the numbers from the last digit, the ones place, and work from right to left. Example Problems These problems show the answers and solutions. 1. Add 34 + 13 + 21.

### A treatise on universal algebra by Alfred North Whitehead

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